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Interaction between adult patients’ family members and nursing staff on a hospital ward

Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi, Paavilainen, Eija, Tammentie, Tarja, Paunonen-Ilmonen, Marita (2001)

The purpose of this study was to generate knowledge of the interaction between an adult patient's family members and nursing staff from the staff's perspective.

Data were collected from nursing staff (n=155) working on the wards and out-patient departments for pulmonary, rheumatic, neurological and gastroenterological diseases at a university hospital by using a new questionnaire based on earlier research and the literature. The questions explored the staff's views of interaction with the adult patient's family members. In this study, interaction is seen as an umbrella concept which encompasses giving information to relatives, discussion, contacts between staff and significant others and working together. The instrument included questions about personal and telephone discussions, the provision of written instructions and factors facilitating and complicating interaction. The response rate was 55%. The data were analysed using SPSS software and examined using frequency and percentage distributions and cross-tabulation. The open-ended questions were analysed using qualitative content analysis by reducing, grouping and abstracting the data inductively.

Discussions with relatives while they visited the patient in hospital were the commonest form of interaction. The majority of respondents perceived the interaction with the patient and knowing his or her family members as important. Less than one-fourth of the respondents started discussion with family members, while the majority expected family members to initiate interaction. The majority of respondents perceived the patient's presence in discussion as important, but sometimes they thought it was necessary to discuss with family members without the patient. The staff discussed with family members mainly in the ward office or in patient rooms, which were, however, not perceived as peaceful. Discussions primarily pertained to the patient's condition, discharge from hospital and planning of continued treatment.

Intentional communication acts expressed by children with severe disabilities in high-rate contexts

Bruce, S. M., & Vargas, C. (2007)

The purpose of this study was to identify the rates of communication expressed by 17 children with severe disabilities in high-rate school contexts while piloting a new coding system for intentional communication acts (ICAs). The following nine characteristics were used when coding ICAs expressed in both child initiated and adult initiated communicative interactions: joint attention, form of communication, use of pause, persistence, repetition, repair, expression of pleasure or displeasure when understood or misunderstood, expression of pleasure or displeasure to communication partner's message, and evidence of comprehension. Children communicated 1.7 - 8.0 ICAs per minute in the highest rate contexts. Nine of the 34 high-rate contexts were speech clinical sessions, six were activities that included eating, 30 were familiar activities, and four were novel activities.

Inte bara Anna : asperger och stress

von Zeipel Elisabet, Alm Kerstin (2015)

Många hade försökt förstå sig på Anna. Men hon hann bli femton år innan någon förstod att hon hade Aspergers syndrom. Att leva med asperger kan vara påfrestande och man stöter på fler hinder i vardagen än andra. Det kan leda till stress och så småningom utbrändhet. Och Anna är långtifrån ensam om sina upplevelser. När Anna var sjutton år kom hon till sist inte iväg till skolan. Här börjar författaren Elisabet von Zeipel och Anna en spännande "resa" som vi får följa med på.

Det här är en fackbok i berättelsens form. Anna har farit illa men trots det är det en hoppfull bok. Utbrändhet kan förebyggas när vi sänker stressen för personer med asperger.

Interdisciplinary Studies of Childhood Ethics: Developing a New Field of Inquiry

Carnevale, F. A., Campbell, A., Collin-Vezina, D., & Macdonald, M. E. (2013)

The principal aim of this investigation was to help develop 'Interdisciplinary Studies of Childhood Ethics' as a new field of inquiry. We identified: (i) current intra-disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge gaps in childhood ethics; and (ii) priorities for future research and development. A prominent problem, highlighted within and across disciplines, relates to how the best interests standard should be reconciled with the recognition of children as agents. This project makes an innovative contribution by promoting the development of interdisciplinary childhood ethics knowledge and standards, informing future improvements in childhood research and services.

Relatives' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: a qualitative study.

Jormfeldt H, Svensson B, Hansson L, Svedberg P. (2014)

The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and
characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and
preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living
environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the
client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives
have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their
mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect
in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose
of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives' experiences of the BPR
approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the
BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a
qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives' experiences of the BPR
intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be
summarized in the theme "To meet the clients' needs" consisting of three
categories: "Dependence on staffs' competence," "Responsibility for user
involvement," and "The necessity for coordination between authorities and
caregivers." The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important
information about clients' needs related to outcome of care. Relatives'
perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research
about the relatives' role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as
studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the
perspective of relatives.

Relatives of psychiatric inpatients – do physical violence and suicide attempts of patients influence family burden and participation in care?

Kjellin, Lars & Östman, Margareta (2005)

A common concern of psychiatric patients' relatives is that patients might be a danger to themselves or others. The aim of this study was to investigate family burden and relatives' participation in care in relation to physical violence towards others and suicide attempts by psychiatric inpatients before admission. Information concerning violence and suicide attempts by the patients prior to admission was collected from the medical records of 155 acutely voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric inpatients. Relatives were interviewed a month after admission, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Violence towards other persons and suicide attempts were recorded in 16% and 17% of the cases, respectively. There were no differences between relatives of patients who had been violent and other relatives regarding burden and participation in care. Relatives of patients with suicide attempts more often stated they had been prevented from having own company, worried about suicide attempts by the patient, had mental health problems of their own, and had own need for care and support. It was concluded that violence of acutely admitted psychiatric patients, targeted at other people, was not associated with burden of family, but the results corroborate the need for psychiatric services to involve and support relatives of psychiatric patients with suicidal behaviour.

Psychopatology in children of holocaust survivors: a review of the research literature

Kellerman, N. P. F. (2001)

The literature on transgenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma has grown into a rich body of unique psychological knowledge with almost 400 publications. For the time being, however, the transgenerational effect of the Holocaust on the offspring remains a subject of considerable controversy. The main question involves the presence or absence of specific psychopathology in this population. Psychotherapists kept reporting various characteristic signs of distress while research failed to find significant differences between offspring and comparative groups. In an effort to settle this question, the present review of the research literature provides a summary of the findings of 35 comparative studies on the mental state of offspring of Holocaust survivors, published between 1973-1999. This extensive research indicates rather conclusively that the non-clinical population of children of Holocaust survivors does not show signs of more psychopathology than others do. Children of Holocaust survivors tend to function rather well in terms of manifest psychopathology and differences in the mental state of offspring and people in general are small according to most research. The clinical population of offspring, however, tend to present a specific "psychological profile" that includes a predisposition to PTSD, various difficulties in separation-individuation and a contradictory mix of resilience and vulnerability when coping with stress.

På väg mot hela vägen. En utvärdering av ”Hela vägens psykiatri” i Gävleborg

Finn, Bengt & Bromark, Kristina (2011)

En rad tragiska händelser i början av 2000-talet som får stor massmedial uppmärksamhet är startpunkten för utredningen Nationell psykiatrisamordning. Utredningen syftade till att se över flera av de områden som berör social omsorg och rehabilitering av personer med psykisk sjukdom eller psykiska funktionsnedsättningar. Statliga stimulansmedel avsattes att användas till kompetenshöjande åtgärder för "baspersonal" inom landstingets psykiatri och kommunernas socialtjänst. 2008 ansökte sex kommuner i Hälsingland och landstinget i Gävleborg om dessa medel och projektet som startas får namnet "Hela vägens psykiatri i Gävleborg".
Det övergripande målet med projektet "Hela vägens psykiatri i Gävleborg" är att förstärka kompetensen bland personal som i sitt dagliga arbete kommer i kontakt med personer med psykisk sjukdom eller psykisk funktionsnedsättning. Kompetenssatsningen syftar till att öka den enskildes (brukarens/patientens) möjligheter till integration i samhället och att leva ett självständigt liv.

The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: a meta-analytic review of controlled outcome research

Currier, J.M., Holland, J.M., & Neimeyer, R.A. (2007)

Abstract
Grief therapies with children are becoming increasingly popular in the mental health community. Nonetheless, questions persist about how well these treatments actually help with children's adjustment to the death of a loved one. This study used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the general effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children. A thorough quantitative review of the existing controlled outcome literature (n = 13) yielded a conclusion akin to earlier reviews of grief therapy with adults, namely that the child grief interventions do not appear to generate the positive outcomes of other professional psychotherapeutic interventions. However, studies that intervened in a time-sensitive manner and those that implemented specific selection criteria produced better outcomes than investigations that did not attend to these factors.

The effectiveness of Talking Mats® with people with intellectual disability

Murphy, J., & Cameron, L. (2008)

People with intellectual disability have significant difficulties in ensuring their voice is heard. Talking Mats is a low tech communication resource which helps understanding and supports expression. This study examined the effectiveness of the resource for people with intellectual disability. A mixed method quantitative and qualitative study involving 48 people at four levels of comprehension was designed to compare the effectiveness of Talking Mats with the individual's main communication method. Thirty of the 48 participants were identified as using Talking Mats effectively. Effective use of Talking Mats was associated with functional comprehension. The study found that scores on all indicators of communication effectiveness were higher when using Talking Mats compared to main communication methods. This study identified that Talking Mats can be an effective communication resource for many people with intellectual difficulty and can help them express their views by increasing both the quantity and quality of information communicated.

Keeping the family balance – adult daughters´ experiences of roles and strategies when supporting caring fathers

Sandberg, J., Eriksson, H., Holmgren, J., & Pringle, K. (2016)

The Scandinavian countries represent a progressive approach to gender equality and transitions of traditional gender roles but little attention has been paid to gender equality in old age and how normative constructions of gender intersect in the lives of family carers. The aim of this study was to understand how adult daughters experience their roles and strategies when supporting fathers caring for an ill mother. A sample of eight daughters shared their experiences through in-depth interviews. The findings show that the daughters provide substantial and crucial effort and are intimately involved in the caring for their father and the sole contributors towards the emotional support of their fathers. They tend to devote a lot of energy towards picturing their family as 'normal' in terms of the family members adopting traditional roles and activities inside as well as outside the family context. In conclusion, the lack of understanding about gender as a 'norm producer' is something that needs to be further elaborated upon in order for professionals to encounter norm-breaking behaviours. The daughters' position as family carers is often assumed and taken for granted since the intersecting structures that impact on the situations of the daughters are largely invisible.

De skandinaviska länderna representerar en progressiv syn på jämställdhet och förändringar av traditionella könsroller, men lite uppmärksamhet har riktats mot jämställdhet i hög ålder och vad som händer när normativa genuskonstruktioner möter erfarenheter hos äldre anhörigvårdare. Syftet med denna studie var att förstå hur vuxna döttrar erfar sina roller och strategier när de stödjer fäder som tar hand om en sjuk mor. Ett urval av åtta döttrar delade sina erfarenheter i djupintervjuer. Resultaten visar att döttrar ger betydande insatser och är intimt involverade i att ta hand om sin far och är den enda bidragsgivare av emotionellt stöd till sina fäder. Döttrarna ägnar stor energi att framställa familjesituationen som 'normal' genom att anta traditionella roller och verksamheter såväl inom som utanför familjen. Förståelse för genus som normskapare är något som måste beforskas ytterligare för att yrkesverksamma ska kunna möta normbrytande beteenden. Döttrars position som anhörigvårdare tas ofta förgiven eftersom de intersektionella strukturer som påverkar döttrar till vårdande fäder i stort sett är osynliga.

Key worker services for disabled children: what characteristics of services lead to better outcomes for children and families?

Sloper, P., Greco, V., Beecham, J., & Webb, R. (2006)

Background  Research has shown that families of disabled children who have a key worker benefit from this service and recent policy initiatives emphasize the importance of such services. However, research is lacking on which characteristics of key worker schemes for disabled children are related to better outcomes for families.

Methods  A postal questionnaire was completed by 189 parents with disabled children who were receiving a service in seven key worker schemes in England and Wales. Path analysis was used to investigate associations between characteristics of the services and outcomes for families (satisfaction with the service, impact of key worker on quality of life, parent unmet need, child unmet need).

Results  The four path models showed that key workers carrying out more aspects of the key worker role, appropriate amounts of contact with key workers, regular training, supervision and peer support for key workers, and having a dedicated service manager and a clear job description for key workers were associated with better outcomes for families. Characteristics of services had only a small impact on child unmet need, suggesting that other aspects of services were affecting child unmet need.

Conclusions  Implications for policy and practice are discussed, including the need for regular training, supervision and peer support for key workers and negotiated time and resources for them to carry out the role. These influence the extent to which key workers carry out all aspects of the key worker's role and their amount of contact with families, which in turn impact on outcomes.

Longitudinal mediators of a randomized prevention program effect on cortisol for youth from parentally bereaved families

Luecken, L., Hagan, M.J, Sandler, I.N., Tein, J., Ayers, T.S., & Wolchik, S.A. (2014)

Abstract
We recently reported that a randomized controlled trial of a family-focused intervention for parentally bereaved youth predicted higher cortisol output 6 years later relative to a control group of bereaved youth (Luecken et al., Psychoneuroendocrinology 35, 785-789, 2010). The current study evaluated longitudinal mediators of the intervention effect on cortisol 6 years later. Parentally bereaved children (N = 139; mean age, 11.4; SD = 2.4; age range = 8-16 years; male; 61% Caucasian, 17% Hispanic, 7% African American, and 15% other ethnicities) were randomly assigned to the 12-week preventive intervention (n = 78) or a self-study control (n = 61) condition. Six years later (mean age, 17.5; SD, 2.4), cortisol was sampled as youth participated in a parent-child conflict interaction task. Using four waves of data across the 6 years, longitudinal mediators of the program impact on cortisol were evaluated. Program-induced increases in positive parenting, decreases in child exposure to negative life events, and lower externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the intervention effect on cortisol 6 years later.

Longitudinal Relationships between Sibling Behavioral Adjustment and Behavior Problems of Children with Developmental Disabilities

Hastings, Richard, P. (2007)

Siblings of children with developmental disabilities were assessed twice, 2 years apart (N = 75 at Time 1, N = 56 at Time 2). Behavioral adjustment of the siblings and their brother or sister with developmental disability was assessed. Comparisons of adjustment for siblings of children with autism, Down syndrome, and mixed etiology mental retardation failed to identify group differences. Regression analysis showed that the behavior problems of the child with developmental disability at Time 1, but not the change in their behavior over time, predicted sibling adjustment over 2 years. There was no evidence that this putative temporal relationship operated bidirectionally: sibling adjustment did not appear to be related to the behavior problems of the children with developmental disabilities over time.

Lived experiences of being a father of an adult child with Schizofrenia

Nyström M, Svensson H. (2004)

The aim of this study is to analyze and describe lived experiences of being a father of an adult child with schizophrenia. Interpretations of interviews with seven Swedish fathers of sons or daughters with schizophrenia revealed a pattern of gradually changing existential consequences. After an initial period of shock when receiving the diagnosis, a long struggle to regain control follows. The findings are presented in a structure based on eight different aspects of this struggle, which seems to be characterized by a balance between grieving and adaptation. An important conclusion is that the fathers' life-world must be attended to in professional family interventions.

Projektrapport: Anhörig stöd vid Ersta sjukhus, Psykiatriska kliniken. Ht 2005 – Ht 2007

Ewertzon, M. (2007)

Ersta diakoni, Ersta sjukhus, Psykiatriska kliniken fick i Juli 2005 i uppdrag från Beställarkontoret vård vid Stockholms läns landsting (SLL) att under perioden hösten 2005 till 2007 utveckla stödinsatser riktat till anhöriga till personer med långvarig psykisk sjukdom. Uppdraget var länsövergripande och stödinsatserna skulle utformas som ett komplement till det stöd som patientens vårdgivare erbjöd. Projektet har fortlöpande genomförts i nära samverkan med intresseföreningar och psykiatriska verksamheter i Stockholms län, i syfte att optimalt tillgodose behovet av kompletterande stödinsatser bland anhöriga/närstående i länet. Stödinsatser och aktiviteter som anordnades var telefonrådgivning, psykopedagogiska grupper och öppna föreläsningar. I de 16 psykopedagogiska grupper som träffades vid fyra till sex tillfäller/grupp har totalt 204 grupper deltagit. I de sex öppna föreläsningarna med teman rörande anhöriga/närstående till person med psykisk sjukdom hat totalt ca 550 personer deltagit. De psykopedagogiska grupperna utvärderades via en enkät i samband med att de avslutades. Ett år efter avslutad grupp har fyra uppföljande fokusgruppsintervjuer genomförts bland syskon till person med psykossjukdom. I enkätutvärderingen framkom att att deltagarna värderade innehållet i föreläsningarna generellt högt. En klar majoritet uppgav att de hade fått mer kunskap om sjukdomen och behandlingen. En klar majoritet (87%) uppgav att erfarenhetsutbytet vid gruppträffarna varit till hjälp. Totalt svarande 94% att gruppträffarna varit till hjälp för dem. Mer än halva gruppen (60%) upplevde sig mindre stressade, eller att de var mindre irriterade eller oroliga vid svårigheter som har med sjukdomen att göra efter det att de deltagit i gruppträffarna. Nästan samtliga (97%) uppgav att de skulle vilja rekommendera denna form av träffar till andra personer. En majoritet (79%) önskade någon form av fortsättning eller uppföljning av träffarna, många förslag lämnades på hur dessa kan utformas. I fokusgrupperna deltog 13 personer. Eftersom det var för få personer som deltog planeras eventuellt ytterligare uppföljningar. Resultatet är ännu inte analyserat då eventuellt ytterligare intervjuer kommer att genomföras. I en första omgång framkom att majoriteten av deltagarna beskrev att träffarna haft betydelse; kunskapsmässigt och/eller känslomässigt. Även här framkom önskemål om någon form av fortsättning/uppföljning av träffarna. Deltagare som deltog i psykopedagogiska grupper under 2006 besvarade frågan "på vilka sätt de ansåg att den psykiatriska vården på bäst sätt kan hjälpa/stödja dem som anhörig/närstående till person med psykisk sjukdom". I svaren framkom förslag om hjälp/stöd på fyra nivåer; generellt stöd på samhällsnivå, eget stöd från vården, möjlighet att delta i vård och behandling samt god vård och behandling av den sjuke. Projektgruppens, som medverkade i och ansvarade för stödinsatserna, erfarenheter är att denna stödform är viktig som ett komplement till det stöd som bedrivs vid andra verksamheter i länet.

Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: Children’s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour

Solantaus, T., Paavonen, E.J., Toikka, S., & Punamäki, R.L. (2010)

The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let's Talk about the Children, LT) on children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with their families. Consenting families were randomized to the two intervention groups. The initial sample comprised 119 families and their children aged 8-16. Of these, 109 completed the interventions and the baseline evaluation. Mothers and fathers filled out questionnaires including standardized rating scales for children's symptoms and prosocial behaviour at baseline and at 4, 10 and 18 months post-intervention. The final sample consisted of parental reports on 149 children with 83 complete data sets. Both interventions were effective in decreasing children's emotional symptoms, anxiety, and marginally hyperactivity and in improving children's prosocial behaviour. The FTI was more effective than the LT on emotional symptoms particularly immediately after the intervention, while the effect of the LT emerged after a longer interval. The study supports the effectiveness of both interventions in families with depressed parents. The FTI is applicable in cultural settings other than the USA. Our findings provide support for including preventive child mental health measures as part of psychiatric services for mentally ill parents.

Prevention and Intervention Strategies With Children of Alcoholics.

Emshoff JG, Price AW. (1999)

Objective. This article was designed to give pediatricians a basic knowledge of the needs of children who live in families with alcoholism. It briefly presents issues involved in the identification and screening of such individuals and provides primary attention to a variety of preventive and treatment strategies that have been used with school children of alcoholics (COAs), along with evidence of their effectiveness.

Methodology. A literature search including both published and unpublished descriptions and evaluations of interventions with COAs.

Results. The scope and nature of the problems of growing up in an alcoholic home are presented. The risk and protective factors associated with this population have been used as a foundation for preventive and treatment interventions. The most common modality of prevention and intervention programs is the short-term small group format. Programs for COAs should include the basic components of information, problem- and emotion-focused coping skills, and social and emotional support. Physicians are in a unique position to identify and provide basic services and referrals for COAs. School settings are the most common intervention sites, but family and broad-based community programs also have shown promise in alcohol and other drug prevention.

Conclusions. Several COA interventions have demonstrated positive results with respect to a variety of measures including knowledge of program content, social support, coping skills, and emotional functioning. Rigorous studies are needed to understand better the complex ways children deal with parental alcoholism. A need remains for empirically sound evaluations and for the delineation of research findings.

Prevalence and correlates of adult attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis

Simon, V., Czobor, P., Balint, S., Meszaros, A., & Bitter, I. (2009)

BACKGROUND:
In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of this disorder.

AIMS:
To estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD and to identify its demographic correlates using meta-regression analysis.

METHOD:
We used the MEDLINE, PsycLit and EMBASE databases as well as hand-searching to find relevant publications.

RESULTS:
The pooled prevalence of adult ADHD was 2.5% (95% CI 2.1-3.1). Gender and mean age, interacting with each other, were significantly related to prevalence of ADHD. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the proportion of participants with ADHD decreased with age when men and women were equally represented in the sample.

CONCLUSIONS:
Prevalence of ADHD in adults declines with age in the general population. We think, however, that the unclear validity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for this condition can lead to reduced prevalence rates by underestimation of the prevalence of adult ADHD.

Positive parenting as a protective resource for parentally bereaved children

Haine, R.A., Wolchik, S.A., Sandler, I.N., Millsap, R.E. & Ayers, T.S. (2006)

Positive parenting was examined as a protective resource against the adverse effects of negative life events on parentally bereaved children's mental health problems. The sample consisted of 313 recently bereaved children ages 8 to 16 and their current caregiver. Both the compensatory (direct effect independent of negative life events) and the stress-buffer (interactive effect with negative life events) protective resource models were examined and child gender was explored as a moderator of both models. Results revealed evidence for the compensatory protective resource model for both child and caregiver reports of mental health problems. No evidence of the stress-buffer model or child gender as a moderator was found. Implications for the understanding of children's responses to the death of a parent and the development and implementation of preventive interventions are discussed.

Psychological characteristics of children of alcoholics

Sher, KJ. (1997)

More than 20 years ago, researchers first noted that children of alcoholics (COA's) appeared to be affected by a variety of problems over the course of their life span. Such problems include fetal alcohol syndrome, which is first manifested in infancy; emotional problems and hyperactivity in childhood; emotional problems and conduct problems in adolescence; and the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Although much has been learned over the ensuing two decades, a number of controversial research areas remain. In particular, debate stems from the fact that despite a common interest in COA's, clinically focused literature and research-focused literature have resulted in two distinct bodies of knowledge. This article reviews important research results, with emphasis on findings generated by the alcohol-research community. Attention also is given to examining the empirical validity of concepts that have been advanced by several influential clinicians from the COA field.

Optimizing treatment effects for substance-abusing women with children: an evaluation of the Susan B. Anthony Center.

Sowers KM, Ellis RA, Washington TA, Currant M. (2002)

Substance abuse among women is a significant national problem. Historically, the treatment of this condition has been difficult, but it has been even more challenging when the woman in treatment has had children. This article reports the results of an evaluation of the Susan B. Anthony Center (SBAC), a residential treatment facility for recovering women and their children. Researchers studied outcomes for 41 women who were first treated in a detoxification program, then referred to either SBAC or a day treatment program. Although random assignment to groups was not possible, the groups were comparable on four major demographic variables. The SBAC groups reported better outcomes on three psychosocial variables: abstinence, arrest, and employment. They improved their total score on the Functional Assessment Rating Scale substantially more than did the comparison group. Consumer satisfaction was also high.

Optimizing treatment effects for substance-abusing women with children: an evaluation of the Susan B. Anthony Center.

Sowers KM, Ellis RA, Washington TA, Currant M. (2002)

Substance abuse among women is a significant national problem. Historically, the treatment of this condition has been difficult, but it has been even more challenging when the woman in treatment has had children. This article reports the results of an evaluation of the Susan B. Anthony Center (SBAC), a residential treatment facility for recovering women and their children. Researchers studied outcomes for 41 women who were first treated in a detoxification program, then referred to either SBAC or a day treatment program. Although random assignment to groups was not possible, the groups were comparable on four major demographic variables. The SBAC groups reported better outcomes on three psychosocial variables: abstinence, arrest, and employment. They improved their total score on the Functional Assessment Rating Scale substantially more than did the comparison group. Consumer satisfaction was also high.

Alcohol use and stress in university freshmen: a comparative intervention study of two universities

Andersson, C. (2009)

doktorsavhandling

Starting university is associated with major academic, personal and social opportunities. For many people, university entrance is also associated with increased stress and alcohol consumption. At the start of the autumn term 2002, all students entering educational programmes at two comparable middle-sized Swedish universities were invited to participate in a comparative intervention study. This included both primary and secondary interventions targeting hazardous drinking and stress. The overall aim was to improve alcohol habits and stress patterns in university freshmen at an intervention university in comparison with a control university.

A total of 2,032 (72%) freshmen responded to the baseline assessment. Half of them scored above traditional AUDIT cut-off levels for hazardous alcohol use. Factors associated with hazardous use were age below 26, male gender, family history of alcohol problems, and not being in a serious relationship. The Arnetz and Hasson Stress Questionnaire was evaluated and used to study a selection of freshmen at high riskof stress. It was easy to use and offered sufficient internal consistency and construct validity. In the freshman year, 517 students (25%) dropped out from university education. A multivariate analysis established that high stress and university setting was associated with dropout from university studies, while symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as hazardous drinking were not.

Outcome was analysed in students remaining at university at one-year follow-up. The primary interventions offered to freshmen at the intervention university reduced alcohol expectancies and mental symptoms compared with freshmen at the control university. Secondary stress interventions were effective in reducing mental symptoms and alcohol expectancies. Secondary alcohol interventions were effective in reducing AUDIT scores, alcohol expectancies, estimated blood alcohol concentrations, as well as stress and mental symptoms.

In conclusion, both primary and secondary alcohol and stress interventions have one-year effects in university freshmen and could be used in university settings.

Alcohol use during pregnancy in Canada: How policy moments can create opportunities for promoting women’s health

Poole, N & Greaves, L. (2013)

This article addresses the challenge of igniting action on health promotion for women in Canada with respect to alcohol use during pregnancy. We illustrate that accelerated action on health promotion for women that engages multiple levels of players, women-centred and harm-reduction frameworks and a gendered approach to understanding women's lives can be achieved when the right policy moment occurs. We illustrate this by describing the opportunity afforded by the Olympic Games in 2010, where the BC government used the Games to encourage action on women's health promotion and the prevention of alcohol use in pregnancy. We suggest that the 2011 announcement of new low-risk drinking guidelines that recommend lower intake of alcohol for women than for men offers another, to date unused, opportunity.

Alcohol use in pregnancy: prevalence and predictors in the longitudinal study of Australian Children

Hutchinson, D., Moore, E.A., Breen, C., Burns, L., & Mattick, R.P. (2013)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS:
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of alcohol use during pregnancy among Australian mothers. The study also aimed to examine the characteristics associated with alcohol use in pregnancy.
DESIGN AND METHODS:
Data comprised two representative samples of families (infant cohort = 5107 parents of 0- to 1-year-olds; child cohort = 4983 parents of 4- to 5-year-olds) from the 2005 Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.
RESULTS:
Alcohol use in pregnancy was reported by 37.6% of mothers of infants aged 0-1 years and 27.6% of mothers of children aged 4-5 years. The majority of women reported low level/occasional use of alcohol but, when extrapolated to population level, this equates to 131,250 children in these two age groups exposed to alcohol in utero, with over 1000 children exposed to alcohol most days and an estimated 671 infants exposed to three or more drinks per occasion. Among mothers of infants, alcohol use in pregnancy was associated with increasing maternal age, higher education, greater economic advantage and fewer physical health problems in pregnancy. Among mothers of children, maternal drinking in pregnancy was associated with increasing maternal age and smoking in pregnancy.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:
Alcohol use during pregnancy is common with around one-third of all mothers reporting use. Most women reported only occasional use, and among those who were asked, consumed one standard drink on average per occasion. Significant numbers were exposed to three or more drinks on one occasion or to alcohol most days while in utero. National guidelines recommend abstinence as no 'safe' threshold has been determined. Public health campaigns are needed to educate pregnant women regarding national guidelines.

Alcohol, Drugs and the Family: Results from a Long-Running Research Programme within the UK

Velleman R, Templeton L. (2003)

This article will outline the main strands of the UK-based Alcohol, Drugs and the Family (ADF) research programme. This programme has examined the impact of substance misuse problems on children, spouses, and families, both in the UK and elsewhere, especially in urban Mexico City and in Australia amongst both urban and rural Aborigine populations. This article will outline the main theoretical perspective that we have developed from this work (the stress-strain-coping-support model). It will outline some of the key findings of this programme, and address some of the key universals that we have observed across various cultures. It will end by describing current research, including the testing of brief interventions being delivered through primary care to family members to enable them to cope better with the problems which family substance misuse causes.

Alcoholism/Addiction as a Chronic Disease

White WL, Boyle M, Loveland D. (2002)

Although characterized as a chronic disease for more than 200 years, severe and persistent alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems have been treated primarily in self-contained, acute episodes of care. Recent calls for a shift from this acute treatment model to a sustained recovery management model will require rethinking the natural history of AOD disorders; pioneering new treatment and recovery support technologies; restructuring the funding of treatment services; redefining the service relationship; and altering methods of service evaluation. Recovery-oriented systems of care could offer many advantages over the current model of serial episodes of acute care, but such systems will bring with them new pitfalls in the personal and cultural management of alcohol and other drug problems.

Senast uppdaterad 2021-01-25 av Peter Eriksson, ansvarig utgivare Lennart Magnusson