Bibliotek

Sök aktuell litteratur inom anhörigområdet

Sökresultat

Din sökning på resulterade i 7659 träffar

Cognitive impairment after stroke - impact on activities of daily living and costs of care for elderly people. The Goteborg 70+ Stroke Study.

Claesson L, Linden T, Skoog I, Blomstrand C. (2005)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
The economic burden of stroke is substantial and is likely to increase with an increasing number of elderly individuals in the population. There is thus a need for information on the use of health care resources and costs among these elderly stroke patients. We examined the impact of the cognitive impairments on the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) and utilization and costs of health care in a cohort of elderly stroke patients.
METHODS:
One hundred and forty-nine patients aged >/=70 years with acute stroke were included. The patients were assessed regarding their ability to carry out ADL and health resource utilization and cost during the first year after stroke. Cognitive impairments were assessed 18 months after the index stroke.
RESULTS:
Stroke severity in acute stroke and cognitive impairment at 18 months after stroke onset was associated with impairment in ADL and increased costs for utilisation of care during the first year. Patients with cognitive impairment were more dependent on personal assistance in ADL. Costs per patient during the study were three times higher for patients with cognitive impairment. Hospital care, institutional living and different kinds of support from society accounted for the highest costs.
CONCLUSIONS:
Costs of care utilisation during the first year after stroke were associated with cognitive impairments, stroke severity and dependence in ADL. The results should be interpreted cautiously as the assessment of cognitive function was made 18 months after stroke onset and costs were estimated for the first year after stroke.

Cognitive, Behavioral, and emotional problems among school-age children of alcoholic parents

Bennett, LA., Wohlin, SJ., Reiss, D. (1988)

Sixty-four children from 37 families with an alcoholic parent were compared with 80 children from 45 families that did not have an alcoholic parent on measures of intelligence, cognitive achievement, psychological and physical disorders, impulsivity-hyperactivity, social competence, learning problems, behavior problems, and self-esteem. On nine of 17 tests, the children of alcoholic parents scored less well than did the children of nonalcoholic parents, although both were within normal ranges. Factor analysis yielded significant differences between the two samples in emotional functioning and cognitive abilities and performance; marginally significant differences were found with respect to behavior problems.

Collaboration between relatives of frail elderly patients and nurses in acute hospital wards : Dimensions, prerequisites and outcome (Bulletin from the unit of caring sciences, department of health sciences, faculty of medicine, 28).

Lindhardt, T. (2007)

The aim was to investigate collaboration between relatives of frail elderly patients and nurses in acute hospital wards, and to develop and test an instrument to investigate, from the relatives? perspective, dimensions of collaboration in this context and the association between collaboration and satisfaction with the hospital care trajectory. The underpinning assumption for the study was that relatives hold knowledge of the patients? situation, which is important for nurses to make a relevant and sufficient care plan. The first two studies were qualitative, investigating relatives? and nurses? experiences of the collaboration with each other. Eight relatives of elderly patients ³ 75 years of age, living at home and dependent on formal and informal help participated. Eight nurses (6 RN + 2 LPN) who conducted the discharge of the elderly patient participated in the second study. In the third study an instrument was developed for measuring collaboration, its prerequisites and outcomes from the relatives? perspective, and put through psychometric testing. In this study, and in the fourth study, which investigated the association between collaboration and satisfaction with the hospital care trajectory, 156 relatives of elderly patients participated. The context was acute medical and geriatric wards in two Danish hospitals. The lived experience of being a relative to a frail elderly patient revealed itself in two main essences: The history reflected the relationship and care history and was the frame of reference in which the hospital admission was interpreted and understood. The constituents were: The adult child, Parent for my mother, It is always in the back of my mind and A full time job. The essence Standing Guard encompassed the encounter with the hospital system and the constituents were: My God, is it now?, Powerless, If you relax, you fail, Watchdog and case manager and Those poor, poor people. The main theme in the interviews with nurses was Encountering relatives ? To be caught between ideals and practice and reflected that the nurses seemingly held two sets of conflicting attitudes towards relatives and the collaboration with them: One ideal and in accordance with their professional values, and another seemingly governing collaboration in practice. Themes were: The coincidental encounter ? the collaboration, which reflected that though ideally described as a structured process, collaboration appeared to be coincidental and rare; and Relatives ? a demanding resource. The sub themes were: Flee or fight ? the nurses? response, A matter of prioritising ? Barriers and promoters, The unwritten rules and The new relatives ? the demanding and unrealistic relatives. A model for collaboration was developed from literature and constituted the basis for development of instrument variables and items. In the factor analysis (PCA) five factors were extracted: ?Influence on decisions?, ?Quality of contact with nurses?, ?Trust and its prerequisites?, ?Achieved information level? and ?Influence on discharge?. The factor analysis supported the assumption that collaboration was a multi-dimensional construct characterised by shared decision-making and exchange of knowledge and information, with prerequisites such as quality of the contact and communication based on trust and respect. The instrument was mainly reliable and valid, although caution should be made due to the sample being small, and the design being cross sectional. Systematic dropout indicated that the study might have missed the most strained, the oldest and the least educated relatives. Further testing after a reduction of items as well as revising of the wording in some items is warranted. Dimensions of collaboration were predictors for the relatives? satisfaction with the hospital care trajectory, and lower ratings of collaboration were significantly associated with lower level of satisfaction. Further, powerlessness, guilt, having provided help less than one year and not providing psychosocial help were predictors for relatives? satisfaction with the hospital care trajectory. Whereas relatives rated poorly on influence on decisions and exchange of knowledge and information, the contact and relationship qualities with nurses were seemingly more satisfactory, although accessibility of nurses appeared to be a problem.

Colocating health care services: a way to improve care coordination of children’s health care

Ginsburg, S. (2008)

Pediatric practices are faced with a growing demand that they address the
healthy development of their patients. As pediatric practices strengthen their role as medical
homes for their patients, they need either to provide expanded services or enhance their
capacity to coordinate that care. One option for enhancing the existing capacity of pediatric
practices is colocation with other providers and services in the same setting. This issue
brief examines what is currently known about the use of colocation and its benefits. The
literature and interviews used as information resources for the brief suggest that colocation
of services is not a single strategy but rather a complex set of relationships, organizational
structures, and other features meant to help practices deliver effective care. However, more
thorough examination of current colocation approaches is needed before advice can be
provided to practices considering this option.

Combined individual cognitive behavior therapy and parent training for childhood depression: 2- to 3-year follow-up

Eckshtain, D. and S. T. Gaynor (2013)

Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver–Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at posttreatment were maintained at 2- to 3-year follow-up. Mothers' reports of significant improvement of child psychosocial functioning were also maintained, providing social validation of the effects. Pretreatment child-rated mother-child relations predicted depressive symptoms at 2- to 3-year follow-up. These long-term data support the use of the combined intervention and suggest the need for further research on caregiver involvement in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Combining paid work and family care

Kroger T., Yeandle, S. (Eds) (2013)

As populations around the world age, increasing efforts are required from families and governments to secure care and support for older and disabled people. Furthermore, both women and men are expected to work later into life. Taken together, these two facts have made the relationship between work and care a burning issue for social and employment policy as well as for those working toward economic sustainability. Emphasizing the lessons that can be learned from individual experiences, this book widens current debates on these topics, bringing the experiences of individuals who support older, disabled, or chronically ill partners, relatives, or children to the discussion table.

Combining work and care: carers decision-making in the context of competing policy pressures

Arksey H, Glendinning C. (2008)

Issues related to paid work and care are of global importance, reflecting the twin pressures of population ageing and efforts to increase labour market participation. Informal carers of sick, disabled or older people can experience tensions between policies aimed at support for care and support for employment. This article discusses a study of carers' decision-making around work and care, drawing on evidence from interviews with 80 working-age carers in England. Carers are not homogeneous; their circumstances and needs differ reflecting age, gender, ethnicity, labour market participation, and the condition and/or needs of the person they support. This diversity is illustrated by contrasting rural and urban carers' decisions and experiences about work and care. Key factors that impact on carers' decisions are: current and anticipated financial need; the constraints arising from receipt of carers' and other means-tested income maintenance benefits; personal identity; job opportunities and scope for flexibility; social services provision; carers' own health. Distance, travel times and transport are unique additional challenges for rural carers who (wish to) work. These difficulties are further intensified when they intersect with other factors such as the Carer's Allowance, the local labour market and social services provision. The findings are evaluated in terms of the adequacy of current government policy measures.

Commentary on in-home monitoring support for dementia caregivers: Feasibility study

Aud, M. A. (2013)

Comments on an article by Kristine Williams, Anne Arthur, Michelle Niedens, Lois Moushey, Lewis Hutfles (see record 2013-14270-001). Williams et al. assessed the feasibility of a telehealth intervention to support family caregivers of persons with dementia in home settings. The authors identify two major concerns of family caregivers: how to best communicate with the person with dementia and how to cope with disruptive behaviors. They list three types of disruptive behaviors: vocalizations, wandering, and physical aggression. Both communication problems and coping with disruptive behaviors are potential sources of increased caregiver stress and increased caregiver burden. William et al. describe an individualized approach using telehealth technologies to connect the family caregiver to an interdisciplinary team with expertise in dementia care. The use of technology as described by the authors facilitates provision of timely information to the family caregiver. The family caregiver does not have to wait until a visit to the healthcare provider to discuss issues with communication and behavior management; weekly feedback is provided.

Commentary on in-home monitoring support for dementia caregivers: Feasibility study

Aud, M. A. (2013)

Comments on an article by Kristine Williams, Anne Arthur, Michelle Niedens, Lois Moushey, Lewis Hutfles (see record 2013-14270-001). Williams et al. assessed the feasibility of a telehealth intervention to support family caregivers of persons with dementia in home settings. The authors identify two major concerns of family caregivers: how to best communicate with the person with dementia and how to cope with disruptive behaviors. They list three types of disruptive behaviors: vocalizations, wandering, and physical aggression. Both communication problems and coping with disruptive behaviors are potential sources of increased caregiver stress and increased caregiver burden. William et al. describe an individualized approach using telehealth technologies to connect the family caregiver to an interdisciplinary team with expertise in dementia care. The use of technology as described by the authors facilitates provision of timely information to the family caregiver. The family caregiver does not have to wait until a visit to the healthcare provider to discuss issues with communication and behavior management; weekly feedback is provided.

Common Questions about AAC Services in Early Intervention

Cress, C. J., & Marvin, C. A. (2003)

Children and adults with developmental delays have benefited from the use of augmentative and alternative
communication (AAC) systems to develop language skills necessary for more generative and functional communication.
Beginning communicators however, have historically been considered too young or too pre-linguistic
and therefore have not been introduced to AAC systems until behaviors, thought to be prerequisites,
have been noted. Recent research and theories about early communication development have challenged this
traditional practice and broadened the scope of what is considered to be AAC. Practitioners and parents unfamiliar
with early AAC options may not recognize possible applications of communication strategies used with
typically developing children and older persons with developmental disabilities. AAC is applicable at all ages
for learning communication roles and behaviors as well as for functional communication for persons who do
not yet demonstrate clear referential symbol use. This article addresses nine questions that are frequently asked
about early introduction of AAC systems to children under 3 years of age. Rationales and strategies are provided
that can assist early interventionists and parents in considering AAC options for children at risk for being
unintelligible or non-speaking.

Communication forms and functions of children and adults with severe mental retardation in community and institutional settings

McLean LK, Brody NC, McLean JE, Behrens GA. (1999)

The forms and functions of expressive communication produced by 84 individuals with severe mental retardation were assessed, using a structured communication sampling procedure. Symbolic communication acts were produced by 39 participants, and 27 of these symbolic communicators produced one or more multiword/multisymbol utterances. Of the remaining participants, 38 produced intentional but nonsymbolic communication acts; 7 were not observed to produce any intentional communication. For all participants who produced intentional communication, there were significantly more imperative than declarative communication acts. Significant differences in the frequencies and functions of communication acts produced by these participants were associated with differences in their communication levels (contact gesture, distal gesture, or symbolic), age (child vs. adult), and residential status (community home vs. large facility).

Dementia across cultural borders: Reflections and thought patterns of elderly Iranians with dementia in Sweden, their relatives and staff at a culturally profiled nursing home

Kiwi, Mahin (2018)

Doktorsavhandling

Introduction: Today's multicultural society has resulted in major changes, with healthcare undergoing significant modifications. Healthcare workers and patients are increasingly confronted with "cultural" backgrounds other than their own. The world's population is ageing, and the number of people with dementia is growing, resulting in a growing number of older people with a foreign background whose care needs have increased at different rates. Migration does not only mean moving from one place to another; it also involves the transition of an individual's lifestyle, life views, social and economic adjustments that may lead to certain changes. These transitions from the "old" to the "new" way of life and from a life without dementia to a life with dementia involve making sense of life's changes. Aim: The aim of study I was to explore the experiences and perceptions of dementia among Iranian staff working in a culturally profiled nursing home (CPNH). The aim of studies II and III was to explore relatives' decisions to end caregiving at home, and Iranian families' and relatives' attitudes towards CPNHs in Sweden. The aim of study (IV) was to explore how the residents with dementia at the CPNH expressed the feeling of "home". Method: This thesis is based on more than one year's fieldwork. The empirical material is based on interviews and observations. Three groups of participants were interviewed and observed: 10 people with dementia (IV), 20 family caregivers and relatives (II and III, respectively) and 34 staff members (I). The interviews were conducted in Persian/Farsi, Azerbaijani, English and Swedish. The choice of language was always up to the participants. All the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim in the respective languages and then translated later into Swedish. The analysis of the material was based on content analysis blended with ethnography. Results: Study I shows that people from different culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds could have different perceptions of what dementia entails. A lack of knowledge concerning dementia affects how staff approach these people. Study II shows that the CPNH is crucial when deciding to cease caregiving at home. It is important to ensure that relatives with dementia are cared for by someone who speaks the same mother tongue. The results indicate that positive feelings of relief or comfort are dominant responses among the participants, some of whom even feel pride in the high standard of care provided by the home. In Study III, most participants based their views on a comparison between the CPNH and Iranian nursing homes after the Islamic Revolution. Negative views of the nursing home were evaluated alongside what the respondents considered to be typically Iranian. In Study IV, the results show that people with dementia's personal experiences of home played a great role, and although none of the participants felt at home, all of them stated that the CPNH was a place to live in. Conclusion: Perceptions of dementia can be based on cultural and traditional understanding, although this can shift through transition and knowledge accumulation. A lack of knowledge concerning dementia and residents' sociocultural background, generational differences and incoherence, aligned with staff members' different sociocultural backgrounds, created many challenges. The staff wanted to learn more about dementia, to be able to manage daily communication with the residents. On another point, the staff admitted that only being able to speak a person's native language was not enough to claim that they were actually communicating. Family caregivers' decisions to end caregiving at home involve mutuality, capability and management, but decision-making sometimes has nothing to do with violating a person's autonomy and is more about protecting the person. The family caregivers do care for frail elderly family members. What has changed due to a transition is the structure and construction of family caregiving. The consequences of communication difficulties between staff and the residents have led to a small degree of social involvement, which in turn affects residents' daily social state. Overall, many family members stated that the CPNH resembled Iran too much, which disturbed them. The residents thought of home as a geographical location, but also connected it with both positive and negative feelings. Furthermore, the CPNH reminded some of the residents of the nicer side of life back home in Iran, while for others it brought back sad experiences and memories from the past. Nevertheless, the nursing home, due to memories and experiences of life in Iran, "home", was a place to be and to live.

Senast uppdaterad 2021-01-25 av EmelieS, ansvarig utgivare Lennart Magnusson